What is CCNA


Cisco Certified Network Associate  is an information technology  certification from Cisco Systems. CCNA certification is an associate level Career certification.

Router Introduction


A router is a networking device that forwards data between different computer networks. The most common type of routers are home and small office routers that simply forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet.



Subnetting is the process of splitting a single network in to multiple sub Computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with an identical most-significant bit-group in their IP addresses.


  Static Routing and Dynamic Routing Configuration


Static routing is when you statically configure a router to send data for particular destinations in preconfigured directions. Dynamic routing is when you use a routing protocol such as OSPF, ISIS, EIGRP and BGP to figure out what paths data should take



Other routers may provide access to trusted networks, and their compromise would cost more than a router connected to a test area. Gateway routers will connect your network to the Internet. Routers are part of a firewall.

Access Control List


An access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an network. An ACL specifies which system processes are granted access to network, as well as what operations are allowed on system or network.



Routers and other networked devices can run Telnet servers. It is a text-based program that lets user to access the console on a router or other device and issue commands for troubleshooting from remote place.


Network Address Translation


NAT is a technique of replacing an Internet Protocol address into another internet protocol address by modifying network address information in the Internet Protocol header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device. One Internet-routable IP address of a NAT gateway used for an entire private network.


   Integrated Services Digital Network


ISDN is a standard for transferring digital data and other network services over the classical circuits of the public switched telephone network.





PAP and CHAP are both used to authenticate PPP sessions and can be used with many VPN. Basically, PAP work  like a standard login procedure; the remote system authenticates itself by user name and password combination.


Frame Relay


It is a packet switching telecommunication service developed for cost efficient and secure data transmission for  irregular intervals traffic between LAN  and between endpoints in WAN


Virtual Local Area Network ( Switch Configuration )


VLAN is the process of virtually partitioning the layer 3 switches in to multiple local area network, based on switch’s port number.google-site-